Wayne May Presentations 4-2011
Wayne May – Hopewell Earthworks
21″ hardened copper blade found on shore of Lake Michigan, determined to be a sword.
Wisconsin Hopewell, October 2010. The large field has different colored weeds due to compaction of soil. In 1940s there were 30 effigy mounds out on the forest next to the field. There lies the foundation of a Hopewell wall, seven feet across, six inches high. Five generations ago the field was already cleared; there are no trees or stones in the field. From Google Earth it is an octagon enclosure footprint, seen from discolored foliage. Tons of artifacts found.
Richard Moates: This is likely a lunar observatory. Wayne is going to use ground penetrating radar. Not a full octagon. When farmers plowed the earth berms, about one foot a year, the berm is now gone due to plowing.
We can still see the earthworks in the ground from Google Earth, which appear to match the late 1800s surveys and maps drawn.
Artifacts: Axes. An Eastern Wisconsin woodland long axe. Slightly different from other Hopewell axes found in other states.
Hopewell effigy pipes are only made by them. Museums in Ohio have some of the best ones, pulled out of the mounds.
In Nauvoo, Joseph’s original log house near the red brick store was provided an electrical line. They dug up a grave and found many mounds there. From the red store to the log house are Native American burials. In one of them they found an effigy pipe, with a cardinal. The Hopewell cemetery is the resting place of Joseph, Emma and Hyrum!
D&C 125:3: Opposite of Nauvoo, instructed to build and call the city Zarahemla. The Mississippi could be the River Sidon. The Indians called the river the “river of fish” and Sidon was derived from an Egyptian word meaning “fish.”
Straight across from the Nauvoo temple. Rumor or speculation state that. Only the Nauvoo temple faces west. The rest face east. River divides two plates. One temple faces east, one faces west. Joseph laid out the new city and a temple spot had been indicated. This is just rumor. Right across from Nauvoo temple. Now the river has risen quite a bit compared to Joseph’s day. A rectangle, 130 yards by 230 yards, which yields a ratio of 2:1. This appears to be a potential layout of a Hopewell temple site. There are farms surrounding, no way to go see it w/o permission. The site is surrounded by a berm.
There are different grasses, causing the different colors. Landowner isn’t a farmer, not sure why the grasses is the way it is. An Iroquois Indian with Wayne found Utah sage growing on the site. Speculation: Hill Cumorah, battles over, and came to Utah and hung out for 30 years. If he was goes back to bury plates, he may have stopped here, at Zarahemla, at the temple site. South of Nauvoo are the Keokuk rapids, where you could’ve walked across the Mississippi river back then. Did he bring the sage and plant it?
Temples in BOM had walls (King Benjamin).
The berms have trees on top. The berms are Hopewell, due to age and size of trees on top.
There are two burials in the berm in one spot, verified by the presence of calcium detected by a piece of equipment.
The western berm is six feet. One can barely detect the remnants of the temple wall, which is mostly gone due to plowing.
Three segments in the large rectangle, two doorways at each end. These three segments are possible areas representing each degree of glory.
There are cedar wooden structures beneath the earth, 5-7 feet deep, near what must be the foundation. The bottom of the structure lies 22 feet below. It varies in top and bottom all through the perimeter. There are voids in the wall structure.
This is definitely a Hopewell temple block, in line with the Nauvoo temple block, in the place where the Lord told Joseph to build a city called Zarahemla.
There are ramps up to the temple mounts in ancient Israel. The rest used steps. Ascending the ancient Israelite temple were 55-60 foot long ramps. A ramp of the same size would be required at this site.
Looking at the top of the wooded ridge encircling the entire proposed Zarahemla area, the find a ring of berms, pointed tops, compacted earth lacking vegetation.
In Montrose, Tony Sanders has a garage full of artifacts all claimed from the Zarahemla area. Lee county Iowa. This has been known as a rich area to go arrowhead hunting. One man’s great-grandfather found over 400 burials in his field.
Niagara is proposed as narrow neck of land.
Generally, Wayne is proposing Bountiful in central Ohio, the land of Nephi in eastern Tennessee near the Appalachians. Zarahemla would lie at the west of Nauvoo.
Hopewell vs. Adena. Two different groups. Adena proposed as Jaredites. The Adena left much older, much more sparse archaeological sites. The men were 7 feet on average and female were average 6 feet.
Pre-flood findings in Utah, west Kansas, predate Hopewell back to Adam. There have been interesting findings in Manti especially. Gold found in small quantities in all the mounds, copper, silver. Gold largely came out of Georgia. The Cherokees were gold miners. Trail of Tears was over gold.
Columbus trip. See many places from there: Mound City, Fort Hill, octagon works, etc.
List of resources. Which books and resources most closely map to this discussion? The magazine: ancient American magazine. Wayne has his “LDS” work and his “Gentile” work. The magazine is secular, but observant latter-day saints will see the connections. They found a city in Ohio, pearls from Gulf of Mexico. The Ohio people traded everywhere, east, west, north, and south. The Hopewell had items from all these places: Rockies, Canada, Mesoamerica, western coast.
Wayne May, Book of Mormon Archaeology. Parallels between Hopewell culture and Nephites. Statements of Joseph Smith
Not until 1830s were the ancient Hopewell earthworks investigated by EG Squire and EH Davis.
Aboriginal Monuments of New York, 1849. Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley by Squires and Davis. This work documents small forts and geometric works. They understood surveying, mapping and geometry. The earth works were engineered, with care and strength. There were many defensive fortifications. Nibble has hinted that we are blinded by the grandeur of Mesoamerican ruins, Egypt’s gold, and that we don’t want to look at the lowly Native American’s remnants.
The cover of his third book, the painting by Lewis A. Ramsey, granted permission by the Church.
Mummified Bodies Discovered in 1775: In KY mummies were found, 200 of them, underneath Lexington. They were removed, burned and trashed due to hard feelings toward the Indians. Embalming was known in the old world and came here with the migrant peoples.
The Smithsonian and Nat. Geographic Society have discounted the BOM and claim that no supportive evidence has emerged. See Archeology and Book of Mormon in Wikipedia. The Big 20: Adena, Hopewell, Ass, Cow, Horse, Ox, Sheep, Swine, Goats, Elephants, Wheat, Barley, Silk, Swords, Steel, Scimitars, Chariots, Hebrew script, DNA/Eastern. All found EXCEPT sheep, swine, wheat, barley, silk, chariots. Early books support the Book of Mormon, none of it is used to support the BOM today, because the authors are not archaeologists. There are hundreds of examples. He has a free download comparison sheet supporting the Book of Mormon with Hopewell.
Written languages: Olmec, Mayan, no resemblance to Hebrew or Egyptian hieroglyphs. The Anthon transcript has been ruled by mainstream as “doodlings.” Anthon Transcript contains characters that have been found. Comparisons to Algonquin Micmac Indian Book of Prayers, by Barry Fell compared Micmac characters to the Anthon Transcript. They are recognized as Egyptian Hieratic. Seventeen close matches. This language is still spoken today. An Ojibwa tribe (this tribe has 50% Middle East DNA) member told him the “YodHeyVa” mystic symbol was read right to left, written in cuneiform. This is a Hebrew techno-gramitron, pronounced just like Yod Hey Vav: Tetragrammaton of the Father’s sacred name.
Why are the Ojibwa Indians still using it today?
Michigan Tablets 1940s to 1920s. It is estimated that 10,000 plates were taken out of Michigan. It was a fight from day 1 until 1920s until archaeologists won the fight and declared the entire collection junk. Now in Michigan we have Cuneiform and Egyptian Hieratic. On east coast we have another ancient language (I missed which one.)
In pouch around Chief Joseph Nez Perce, wore a tablet around his neck, written in cuneiform. It now lies in a West Point museum. Bat Creek Stone, in Phoenician script, stone is paleo-Hebrew script. This stone is ignored until 2010. Geologists have championed the stone.
An ancient DNA marker found in upper great plains, as high as 50%-25%, and originates in ancient near east.
In March, 2011 there was a Brahma bull carving found inside a cave. More information on it will be coming out in Ancient America magazine this fall.
Rivers were highways for the Hopewell. Isle Royale and Keweenaw (upper MI pen.) 5,000 and 10,000 mines respectively. The Jaredites threw up huge banks of earth. MI took the UI b/c of copper, ten years before WI was a state. Captain Moroni’s Fortification of Nephite Cities, 70 BC are replete throughout the Hopewell footprint. Small fort found on Hopewell farm and excavated by Smithsonian. Anything afterwards that matched became known as Hopewell.
Hill top forts are big. There are holes all the way around the walls and what mainstream think are doorways, were really the bastions of wood. Small forts are well surveyed, laid out, circular and square geometric works. Generally were built in 150 AD. Stability and highly skilled, division of labor existed during the post-Christ visit period era of peace.
Ditches, high banks, ditches, a defensive campaign fought under Captain Moroni. These banks and ditches are everywhere in the Hopewell culture. These are highly sophisticated structures and are not remnants of small groups of hunter gatherers. There is a highway built on one of them and local residents don’t even know what it is.
Description of a Ross county enclosure built on top of a hill; a fort with a serpentine place of entrance. Hopewell Wooden Towers match description in BOM, some including cement. Avg. dates are 30, 230, 430 AD. Alma 50:1-6, see comparisons. By fortifying the cities they had tons of wasted wood from the tree root balls and branches.
Stalagmite reveals carbon footprint of early Native Americans, 2010. Major changes occurred at 100 BC, suggesting clearing and burning forests by Native Americans. This matches well with the 70 BC date of Moroni’s defensive fortifications.
Weapon of choice was the atlatl, casting arrows. Most arrow points are too big for arrows; they are more likely atlatl points, used on mini-spears. Zelph’s body had an atlatl point in it. We learn in Alma 50:15 of the city of Lehi. The Milford Ohio works are shaped like an oil lamp and a menorah. A very unusual site, unlike anything else ever discovered. The Gridiron site is also known as this site.
King Benjamin’s tower shows the temple had walls. Cedar Bank Works has a walled temple site. The potential new Hopewell site across from Nauvoo.
In year 16 Lachoneus gathered all the people to the center of the land. 3 Nep 3:21-24. At southern tip of Illinois drew the Hopewell cultures from near Nauvoo and the center of Ohio. In the tip of Illinois is an escarpment all the way across, bordered by the rivers and a series of forts across the escarpment, to fight off the Gadianton robbers. This is Lachoneus’ place of gathering and safety. Carbon dating is 50 AD.
Breastplates and headplates appear in several scriptures. Hopewell had copper head plates, found throughout the area. Copper breastplate was straight across, had pull through and cinch fastening holes. In Ohio they have colored woven fabrics discovered, stored in the museums. Arm shields, shoulder shields. Spear points were held by iron pins and were made from smelted copper.
Alma 16:11 mentions mass graves. Battle mounds are common. Dead were buried in the fortified ditches. There are over 250 forts just in western New York alone. Joseph knew way more than he ever revealed about this land. Joseph on Zion’s Camp march, experiences the Zelph incident. Then on shores of Mississippi, he wrote a letter to his wife. He said, the men were “wandering over the plains of the Nephites…roving over the mounds of that once beloved people of the Lord picking up their skulls and bones, as proof of its divine authenticity.” Zion’s Camp marched through the heart of the Hopewell nation.
Joseph visited a high mound, where three altars had been erected one above the other, according to the ancient order. Remains of bones have been found around the ground. Found Zelph. The arrow is the church archives. Joseph had a vision and saw Zelph was a righteous white Lamanite, warrior and chieftain under the great prophet Onandagus who was known from the hill Cumorah or eastern sea to the Rocky Mountains. Of the six nations of the Iroquois, one is known as the Onondaga. Remember Onida in the BOM. Onandagus is the prophet mentioned in the Zelph story. The east sea is Lake Ontario.
He found the Zelph mound after 4 years of looking, on the Illinois River. It sits on a state fishing and game preserve. It is now known as the “Mormon Mound.” The state of Illinois sank a test trench through it, in 1979-87. They took copper axes out. The mound dated to 150-350 AD. Later they corrected it to be 380 AD. Zelph was in the end times of the Nephites. Dickson Mound Archaeologist. Over 51 mounds in a half mile distance up the Illinois mound. These are burial mounds. Massive fighting and death took place.
Joseph identified, as written in Zion’s Camp members journals: Huntsville, Manti city in BOM. The waters of Mormon were south of Manti. The largest freshwater spring: Big Spring, MO is a candidate for the Waters of Mormon.
The “west” in 1800s was the Ohio territory, east of the Mississippi. A letter to Rochester paper, Joseph said: The Book of Mormon is record of the forefathers of our western Native Americans. The Algonquin nation. There was a mission to the Lamanites, who were considered the descendants of the Lehites. Some measured DNA comes from the Middle East.
Buffalo migrated through “Buffalo” county WI. The Lamanites followed them to eat the stragglers. Only in NA are there buffalo migrations, or any migrations.
Lots of narrow necks to pick from. The word Niagara means “the neck.” narrow pass different from Narrow neck. The pass from Detroit to Toronto. But blocking the narrow pass would be effective. Niagara Escarpment is geologic creates a very narrow pass. Rough made forts on top of that escarpment. Huron and Erie were likely connected due to higher water.
D&C 125:3, name the new city Zarahemla. First book of Joseph Smith papers, and the Church bought tons of property west of Nauvoo.
Oldest Hopewell dates come from east TN and FL panhandle. All the Ohio is 100 BC, when Moroni began fortifying. So Land of Nephi – eastern TN.
Many sites were in TN valley, which is now underwater. There was a Hopewell burn was a huge rectangular building, could be Nephi’s temple! East TN was ripe in copper. Temple erected on Clinch River, just below an Indian burial ground. A Temple in TN, investigated by U. of London, 1935. Nephi built a smelter and dug copper and dressed his temple in it. He didn’t cross paths with the Mule kites when he left his brethren. Sidon wasn’t mentioned until then either. Nephi had to get copper elsewhere then. East TN. Tennessee is an Egyptian word: Land of Isis. Tene – land of.
Land of Nephi 3000 feet. Land of Zarahemla 600 feet. Down and up directions.
James E. Talmage journal, W.C. Mills head of Ohio archaeology. Matches descriptions of Nephites and Lamanites.
Mesoamerican nations are not lifted up above other nations.
The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, the Prophetic Book of Mormon, Vol. 8, ch. 14. Page 272. He sees Hopewell and Adena more likely than Mayan connection to BOM. http://www.hillcumorahhistory.com.
Joseph was in hiding during four weeks, when the Times & Seasons statement about Palenque being BOM sites, probably John Taylor said it. The statement was in response to the Williams and Catherwood book on the Myan antiquities.
Hill Oneida: Seneca elder, Fred Kennedy, the Iroquois has a priesthood. The hill on their reservation from Hill Cumorah, they meet once every 7 years between the nations. Same names.
Onandagus. Onondaga tribe is the spiritual leaders of the 6 tribes. Sort of like the tribe of Levi was to the Israelites. Until 700-800 AD there was massive war. Hiawatha then settled the differences between all the tribes. Hiawatha was an Onondaga. He could have had spiritual help in the peace process. Sidon is an Egyptian word for fish. Native Americans called the river the river of fish.
One story arose in New York. The Iroquois talk about the Great Spirit came down and stood on a natural ledge, on their reservation.
Indians say Mormon is buried (Iroquois), the hill where blood ran red all day (Cumorah.) The Lamanites respected Mormon and gave him an honorary burial. Took body to Oswego river, near mouth, buried him. (on an island?) This comes from the Iroquois.